What Are The Reasons For Painful Menstruation?

Pain during your period is typical and is experienced by most women.  You can notice several signs like an unreasonable pain in the back and legs. There are times when the pain is excruciatingly sharp, and other times when it is mild but persistent.

It’s possible that it changes with every cycle. Period pain can range from barely noticeable to excruciatingly excruciating. Having pelvic pain while you don’t have your period is not uncommon.


Medical experts say that It is quite normal for the uterus to contract during menstruation. It is helpful for the release of the lining. These stresses and compressions are a result of contractions of the uterine muscle. And a specific hormone-like molecule (prostaglandins) plays a big part in this pain and inflammation. Menstrual cramps tend to be more intense when prostaglandin levels are high.

Pain during menstruation may result from a number of different factors.

1. Endometriosis

It is a kind of condition with the presence of endometrium-like tissue in the uterus. Mostly its location is outside of the uterus, like the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and pelvic floor. 

This issue may lead to unbearable pelvic pain. And if this issue remains untreated, it can cause adhesions, persistent inflammation, chocolate cysts, and internal bleeding. Period discomfort that doesn’t go away is just one symptom of endometriosis.

2. Adenomyosis

It is a kind of disorder when the uterine lining develops into the uterine muscle. A severe case of this might result in painful, heavy periods.

If a diagnosis of endometriosis, fibroids, or adenomyosis has been made, your doctor will discuss the best course of action with you.

3. Fibroids

These are like benign tumors that develop from the uterine muscle. In structure, it resembles a spiral of muscular fibers.

Although fibroid growth is sometimes asymptomatic, it can sometimes lead to unpleasant side effects such as excessive menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, urinary frequency, constipation, leg pain, and back pain.

4. Copper IUD

Non-permanent and hormone-free, a copper intrauterine device (IUD) can lead to infertility for up to ten years. Its main function is to prevent pregnancy and it works by immobilizing sperm and stopping eggs from implanting.

Unlike progestin IUDs, menstruation after installation of a copper IUD can be thicker and more painful, especially during the first few menstrual cycles. However, be careful; if you have had your copper IUD for a while and suddenly experience significant period pain, there may be other factors at play. It’s quite improbable that your IUD is to blame.

5. Uterine infections

Chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, and other bacteria can all lead to an infection of the female reproductive system. Pelvic inflammatory illness is an ailment caused by these microorganisms (PID).

Occasionally STIs like chlamydia or gonorrhea have a role in causing PID. The use of an intrauterine device (IUD) and douching are also potential dangers.

It is possible to have no symptoms at all from an infection (such as chlamydia). An infected uterus can cause a variety of uncomfortable symptoms, including pelvic discomfort, heavy menstrual bleeding, a foul-smelling discharge, irregular bleeding, pain during sex or urination, a high body temperature, and a chill.

6. Cervical stenosis

In certain women, the aperture of the cervix is sufficiently narrow to obstruct the flow of menstrual blood, leading to a painful and uncomfortable rise in pressure within the uterus. This condition is called cervicitis.

7. Ovarian cysts

Every month, one of your ovaries is likely to produce a fluid-filled sac known as an ovarian cyst. They are often painless, however, they have been linked to pelvic discomfort, particularly around menstruation and sexual activity.

Ovarian cysts, for the most part, are associated with regular ovulation. At the end of each month, the ovary will have several follicles ready to release an egg. One of these can continue to expand and fill with fluid at times. The follicle can also close and refill with fluid if an egg was discharged from it. Exactly why this occurs is a mystery. Cysts can also grow from mucus, endometrial, or follicular tissue, or from other types of tissue (hair, skin, teeth). In addition to causing cysts in other areas of the body, endometriosis can develop endometriomas in the ovaries. A malignant ovarian cyst is quite unusual.


Period Pain: How Long Does It Last?

Pain associated with menstruation often begins when bleeding does, however, some women have discomfort in the days leading up to their period.

The discomfort often subsides after two to three days, however, it may last for longer. While bleeding heavily is when it generally gets the worst.

Some of the best doctors agree that when their periods’ first start, many young women experience discomfort.  Symptoms of period discomfort that can’t be pinned down to anything else typically fade with age. Additionally, many women report feeling better after giving birth.

Treatments for period pain

Period pain can be alleviated by the following:

  • Medication (paracetamol, for example) medication (ibuprofen, for inflammation) regular exercise (for endorphin release), which reduces pain
  • Relaxing the abdominal and back muscles by applying a heat pack or hot water bottle to the area
  • Prostaglandin and pain are controlled by the pill, a contraceptive that does double duty.
  • MirenaTM intrauterine device (IUD), is a contraception that delivers progestogen into the uterus to reduce the severity and frequency of menstruation.


Cramps during menstruation are a typical complaint for many women. Many treatments exist to alleviate the distress they bring. You should visit a gynecologist doctor if the symptoms are severe or if they occur outside of your period.


1. When do you get the worst cramps from your period?

Pain associated with menstruation often begins when bleeding does, however, some women have discomfort in the days leading up to their period. Pain can continue for longer than the typical 48-72 hours. In most cases, the discomfort is the worst when the bleeding is the heaviest.

2. Where is period pain located?

Menstrual cramps, a throbbing, cramping pain in the lower abdomen, are the most common cause of this discomfort. Besides those mentioned above, you could also be experiencing things like lower back discomfort, nausea, diarrhea, and migraines.

3. When is cramping during your menstruation abnormal?

Call your doctor right away if you get severe cramps followed by fever, vomiting, dizziness, abnormal vaginal bleeding, or vaginal discharge.

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